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卜算子·黄州定慧院寓居作 ·苏东坡
北美的月亮
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注册时间: 2007-01-08
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北美的月亮北美枫文集
帖子发表于: 2008-02-28 11:40    发表主题: 卜算子·黄州定慧院寓居作 ·苏东坡 引用并回复

苏轼

(1037-1101),字子瞻,一字和仲,号东坡居士,眉州眉山(今四川眉山县)人。嘉祐二年进士,官至礼部尚书。苏轼是杰出散文家、诗人、词人、书画家、文艺评论家和审美鉴赏家。词集有《东坡乐府》。其词视野广阔,风格豪迈。





卜算子·黄州定慧院寓居作 ·苏东坡

缺月挂疏桐,漏断人初静。谁见幽人独往来,缥缈孤鸿影。
惊起却回头,有恨无人省。拣尽寒枝不肯栖,寂寞沙洲冷。




这首词的主旨历来说法不一,有人认为是为王姓女子而作,有人认为是为温都监女作,即这是一首爱情词;但也有人认为是作者对现实不满,抒发愤懑之情的,也就是说这是一首影射、刺时之作;还有人认为这首词是写作者的寂寞之情的。本文认为,将此词定位为作者抒发自己对现实不满的寂寞之情是比较恰当的。

  本篇是苏轼于元丰五年(1082)十二月在黄州所作。苏轼因所谓的“乌台诗案”,被贬为黄州团练副使。苏轼自元丰三年(1080)二月至黄州,至元丰七年六月移汝州,在黄州贬所居住四年多。

  定惠院,一作定慧院,在今湖北省黄岗县东南。苏轼初贬黄州,寓居于此。词先写定慧院夜半时分的寂静情况。“漏”指漏壶,古时以漏水来计时的器具。“漏断”,漏壶里的水滴尽了,指夜深。“缺月”,这一意象,一是指夜色之暗,一是象征人事之不完满。“疏桐”与“缺月”对举,“疏”字亦有不完满之意。且暗淡的月色从疏枝间漏出,斑驳破碎,益增夜色之凄清。这段大意是说,在院中夜深人静,月挂疏桐之时,仿佛有个幽人独自往来,如同孤鸿之影。这个“幽人”,可能是想象的,也可能是苏轼自指。实即“夜中不能寐”“披衣起旁徨”之意。“幽人”之幽,兼有幽居、幽雅之意。“幽人”之“独往来”之情,必有不能为外人道者。

  下半阕承接上文而专写孤鸿,说这个孤鸿惊恐不安,心怀幽恨,却不肯栖息,只得归宿荒冷的沙洲。这正是苏轼贬居黄州时心情与处境的写照。以孤鸿自况,“拣尽寒枝不肯栖”句,尤见出作者不愿曲意改志,与世俗合流的峻洁姿态。清人张惠言《词选》卷一引鲖阳居士对这首词的解释,略谓:“惊鸿,贤人不安也;回头,爱君不忘也;无人省,君不察也;拣尽寒枝不肯栖,不偷安于高位也;寂寞沙洲冷,非所安也。”虽嫌拘泥,相去亦不远。

  这首词在艺术上也有其独到高妙之处。黄庭坚《山谷题跋》评此词说:“语意高妙,似非吃烟火食人语,非胸中有万卷书,笔下无一点尘俗气,孰能至此!”评价可谓甚高。黄蓼园《蓼园词选》谓:“语语双关,格奇而语隽,斯为超诣神品。”陈廷焯《词则·.大雅集》评此词说:“寓意高远,运笔空灵,措语忠厚,是坡仙独至处,美成、白石亦不能到也。”也推崇备至。至于这首词的章法也很独特,前人已有道出者。胡仔在《苕溪渔隐丛话前集》卷三十九中说:“此词本咏夜景,至换头但只说鸿。正如《贺新郎》词‘乳燕飞华屋’,本咏夏景,至换头但只说榴花。盖其文章之妙,语意到处即为之,不可限以绳墨也。”可见苏轼在词的创作上的天才纵横之气。
_________________
你是我的太阳,给了我阳光——却让我看不到你。 于是岁月 只能让我 在你如火的目光里———站成一棵月亮树。
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