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  The History of modern Egypt conventionally begins from 1882 when Egypt became part of the British sphere of influence in the region, a situation that conflicted with Egypt's position as part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1914, the country became a British protectorate and achieved independence in 1922. British troops, remained in the country until 1956 after the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, and the declaration of a republic in 1952. Gamal Abdel Nasser's resultant one party state has seen many changes but has remained in place, firstly under Anwar Sadat, and until the present day government headed by Hosni Mubarak.

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