Building is that people use stone, wood and other building materials a structure for human habitation and use of objects such as homes, bridges, stadiums and so on. Broadly speaking, the garden is part of the building. Someone once said: God gives the wood off. Stone. Soil and grass, are people of all other labor ... This is the building. Is the solidification of the music building. Architecture is a rock history book.
Four historical stages of landscape development
World garden history, through the primitive civilization, agriculture and civilization, industrial civilization and the information civilization four stages of civilization.
(A) of the original Civilization stage
Primitive and civilized human society lasted about more than 200 years. The human tree, nest door, Rumaoyinxue, nest door, collecting fishing and hunting. Human nature to adapt to the passive state of the environment, the living process of evolution, one species of human being , color and other characteristics of the attractive appearance and has telepathy, endowed with the meaning of life, with Worship. primitive civilization, the late, human agriculture and _set_tlement of the tribe, garden planting, breeding birds. tribe in the vicinity before the House session with the Housing orchard, vegetable garden, the keeper of birds place. gradually to meet the needs of people sacrifice food and clothing, garden be bred into the bud.
The gardens bud features are: planting, cultivation, recreation, regardless; for all tribal members to share condominium; subjective to worship and sacrifice to solve the problem of food and clothing, and objective functions are viewing.
(B) agricultural civilization stage
Ago about 1 million years ago, in Asia and Africa, some of the alluvial plains and river delta areas, the rapid development of agriculture, mankind entered a mainly agricultural civilization in farming, orchards, vegetable garden, animal production field Yi differentiation is for based fruit and vegetable gardens, and mainly for ornamental gardens, hunting Court. With the further development of agricultural productivity, resulting in the towns, capital and handicrafts, commerce, construction techniques to continuously improve, to build large-scale garden Hing is a necessary condition
Natural geographical, cultural system evolution form a system of the world garden. Culture system are the main factors of race, religion, customs, language systems, historical geography and cultural exchange, particularly in the natural geographic, ethnic, religious culture, languages, and systems affected maximum.
Garden systems into the world system of the European landscape, the Islamic garden system and system of the three major systems of Chinese gardens.
* European garden system
European gardens, also known as the Western landscape. Mainly based on ancient Egypt and ancient Greece to the French garden as the source of classical gardens and English Landscape Garden two schools to the rules of artificial beauty garden and natural beauty of the natural garden is garden style, ideology and theory, superb unique artistic attainments.
European garden coverage, it is native to Europe as the center of sphere of influence encompasses Europe, North America, South America, Australia, four continents, South Africa, North Africa, West Asia, East Asia and other parts of the development and contemporary garden has a major impact.
Two major schools of European garden style has its own distinct characteristics. Rule garden: magnificent, eyes open, strict symmetry, balanced composition, flower beds, statues, fountains and other decorative rich, elegant and solemn expression, elegant momentum.
Landscape Gardens eliminated the boundary between garden and nature, will be introduced into the natural landscape as the main body, ruled out of the canvas reflects the natural scenery, back to nature art.
* Islamic garden system
Islamic gardens are gardens of Babylon and Persia as the origin of the typical cross garden layout, closed building and special water-saving irrigation systems combined with the rich elegant architectural design and decoration of delicate colors of the Arab landscape.
Islamic gardens, the Euphrates, Mesopotamia and the end of glis Mesopotamian plain as the center, as the scope of the Arab world, across Europe, Asia, and Africa, to India, Spain, the most typical style of the medieval garden, on the Art world garden style changes have great influence.
Islamic gardens are usually smaller, building closed, trees planted by way constitute a cross axis, the whole garden is divided into four districts. Garden center, cross the road intersection layout pool, a symbol of heaven. Park in the alternating light and dark gullies, disc Chung Dripping Springs also separate the geometric shape of small gardens, each garden the same tree. colored decorative ceramic mosaic pattern is widely used in the garden.
* China Garden System
China Garden Lin Zunchong harmony with nature's ecological principles for the United States, are landscapes garden areas to non-rule-style garden, as the basic features, landscape architecture and landscape organically integrate the environment, natural and harmonious, seamless, implies one London-based, enjoyable poetic Landscape gardening.
Chinese garden features are:
1). This was natural, higher than the natural scenery with mountains, water based landscapes, mountains, water, plants but the basic elements constitute the natural landscape, not the general use of Chinese gardens, or simply mimic elements of these institutions view original state, but consciously to transform, adjust, process, crop, and thus the performance of a concise summary of the nature, typifying the nature. Only in this way, this was natural, and higher than the natural and ethical, moral-based, landscape elements and The combined implication of which is particularly prominent.
2). Architectural beauty and natural beauty of organic integration - in harmony with nature as the United States and China garden built on the basis of respect for nature, "Yin said," hailed as the world's first ecological building to the geographical nature and mountains, water, flowers, birds and other elements of organic gardening organizations in a series of landscape images into. prominence harmonize with each other and mutually reinforcing the positive side, restrictions against each other, mutually exclusive of the negative side. the latter into the former, axial symmetry of the regular-type composition in the palace temple building, but day workers Qiao, China's special form of landscape architecture. in the garden generally achieve a high degree of harmony of man and nature, "Heaven" and "natural harmony for the U.S. "The philosophical realm.
3) Yang Yang Chinese garden filled with poetic; has a unique charm to create the moods
China Garden Chinese cultural system, affecting a profound impact on Japan.
Throughout the history of the evolution of the Japanese garden, Japanese garden to the far by the profound influence of Chinese gardens, although in some respects unique skills, even in turn affect the Chinese garden, but it did not ultimately from the Chinese garden system.
(C) stage of industrial civilization
(D) Information Civilization stage
Promote the public garden, public green space, urban development and ecological landscape of the arts, and promote the human any "project" and the activities of the natural living environment of the landscape art of thinking.
Cultural diversity of contemporary globalization, human environment and the survival of theoretical consideration of natural ecological environment, protect the natural environment and maintaining ecological balance as the core of sustainable development theory enjoys popular support.
Practical significance of landscape history
A human landscape history, records the living environment of human self-recognition of endogenous self-reflection footprint. Ancient China for its beauty and natural harmony laws of the broad ecological and poetic triumph in the world. The history of Western self-critical introspection, has reached the forefront of the world.
With copper as a mirror, you can now dressed; to person, we can see advantages and disadvantages; learn from history, one can know the rise and fall. From the garden to the modern landscape, environmental design, with other cultures, is in the transmission, absorption, learn the history of fusion atmosphere come today. learn the historical development of the basic foreign landscape experience and lessons, promote succession of outstanding landscape of human culture, for our environment parks activities Kexue the theory and practice of Yi Ju, yes urgent urgent solution of 重大 issue has important theoretical Jiazhi and practical significance ..